Matthew 5 – Commentary

Matthew 5 – Commentary

  Matthew 5 (22.5 KiB, 225 hits)

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Matthew 5: Kata Matthaion 5: ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 5

Last updated 28th March 2012

1. Seeing the large crowds of people, He went up onto a mountain. He sat down, and then His disciples came to Him.
ἰδὼν
δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος, καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ·

2. Then He opened His mouth, and He taught them, saying:
καὶ
ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων·

3. “Blessed are people who are poor in spirit, for the Kingdom of Heaven belongs to them.
Μακάριοι
οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
“poor”
– literally, destitute – ptochoi – πτωχοὶ

4. Blessed are people who mourn, for they shall be comforted.
μακάριοι
οἱ πενθοῦντες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.

5. Blessed are meek people, for they shall inherit the earth.
μακάριοι
οἱ πραεῖς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν.

6. Blessed are people who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be filled.
μακάριοι
οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην, ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθησονται.

7. Blessed are merciful people, for they too will be shown mercy.
μακάριοι
οἱ ἐλεήμονες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται.

8. Blessed are people who have pure hearts, for they will see God.
μακάριοι
οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται.
“people who have pure hearts”
– literally “pure in heart” – hoi katharoi tei kardia – οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ,

9. Blessed are people who make peace, for they will be called the children of God.
μακάριοι
οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί, ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται.
children” – literally “sons” – huioi – υἱοὶ

10. Blessed are the people who are persecuted for being righteous, for the Kingdom of Heaven belongs to them.
μακάριοι
οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

11. Blessed are you, when people reject you, and persecute you, and tell of kinds of evil lies against you, for My sake.
μακάριοι
ἐστε ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθ’ ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ.

12. Rejoice, and be extremely happy, for you have a great reward in Heaven, for this is the same way they persecuted the prophets who lived before you.
χαίρετε
καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε ὅτι μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν.

13. You are the salt of the earth. If the salt loses its saltiness, how shall it be made salty again? It is then not useful for anything but to be thrown outside and trampled under people’s feet.
Ὺμεῖς
ἐστε τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς· ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ, ἐν τίνι ἁλισθήσεται; εἰς οὐδὲν ἰσχύει ἔτι εἰ μὴ βληθὲν ἔξω καταπατεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.
salt” – halas – ἅλας It is from this word that we get the English word “Halogen”

14. You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden.
μεῖς ἐστε τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου. οὐ δύναται πόλις κρυβῆναι ἐπάνω ὄρους κειμένη·

15. And no-one lights a candle, and places it under a basket of grain. Rather they put it on a candlestick, so that it may give light to all who are in that house.
οὐδὲ
καίουσιν λύχνον καὶ τιθέασιν αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν καὶ λάμπει πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ.
It may give light” : Greek – lampei – λάμπει Like the English “Lamp”

16. Let your light shine so brightly to men that they may see your noble deeds, and glorify your Father who is in Heaven.
οὕτως
λαμψάτω τὸ φῶς ὑμῶν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ὅπως ἴδωσιν ὑμῶν τὰ καλὰ ἔργα καὶ δοξάσωσιν τὸν πατέρα ὑμῶν τὸν ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.

17. Do not think that I have come to destroy the teachings of the Law or the prophets. I have not come to destroy these, but to fulfil them.
Μὴ
νομίσητε ὅτι ἠλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον τοὺς προφήτας· οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι.
Law” – “nomon” – νόμον Like astronomy or autonomous
prophets” – prophetas – προφήτας

18. I tell you the truth, until heaven and the earth are removed, the Law will not be amended, even by a single dot or stroke, until all of it is fulfilled.
ἀμὴν
γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν. ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ οὐρανὸς καὶ γῆ, ἰῶτα ἓν μία κεραία οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου ἕως ἂν πάντα γένηται.
dot” – Greek “iota” – ἰῶτα This is also the name of the Greek letter of the alphabet which corresponds to the English “i” and “I”

19. Therefore, whoever breaks even the smallest of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, he shall be called the smallest person in the Kingdom of Heaven. Whoever, however, obeys these commandments and teaches them, he shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven.
ὃς
ἐὰν οὖν λύσῃ μίαν τῶν ἐντολῶν τούτων τῶν ἐλαχίστων καὶ διδάξῃ οὕτως τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ἐλάχιστος κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν· ὃς δ’ ἂν ποιήσῃ καὶ διδάξη, οὗτος μέγας κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν.

20. I tell you that unless your righteousness is greater than the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, you will not at all enter the Kingdom of Heaven.
Λέγω
γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ περισσεύσῃ ὑμῶν δικαιοσύνη πλεῖον τῶν γραμματέων καὶ Φαρισαίων οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν.

21. You have heard that it was said by people who lived long ago:
“You must not kill, and whoever kills will be in danger of judgement
.”
Ήκούσατε
ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις οὐ φονεύσεις ὃς δ’ ἂν φονεύσῃ ἕνοχος ἐσται τῇ κρίσει·

22. I say to you, that whoever is angry with his brother without reason will be in danger of the judgment, and whoever says to his brother:
“Raca”
will be in danger of the council, but whoever says:
“You fool!”
will be in danger of hell’s fire
.
ἐγὼ
δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὀργιζόμενος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ ἕνοχος ἐσται τῇ κρίσει· ὃς δ’ ἂν εἶπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ ῥακά, ἕνοχος ἐσται τῷ συνεδρίῳ. ὃς δ’ ἂν εἶπῃ μωρέ, ἕνοχος ἐσται εἰς τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρός.

23. Therefore, if you bring your gift to the altar, and you remember when you are there that your brother has anything against you;
ἐὰν
οὖν προσφέρῃς τὸ δῶρον σου ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον κακεῖ μνησθῇς ὅτι ἀδελφός σου ἔχει τι κατὰ σοῦ,

24. Leave your gift there before the altar, and get going, first be reconciled with your brother, and then come and offer your gift.
ἄφες
ἐκεῖ τὸ δῶρόν σου ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου καὶ ὕπαγε. πρῶτον διαλλάγηθι τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, καὶ τότε ἐλθὼν πρόσφερε τὸ δῶρον σου.

25. Reach a settlement with your opponent quickly, while you are walking along with him, so that your opponent will not deliver you to the judge, and the judge will not deliver you to the officer, and you will not be thrown into prison.
ἴσθι
εὐνοῶν τῷ ἀντιδίκῳ σου ταχύ, ἕως ὅτου εἶ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, μήποτε σε παραδῷ ἀντίδικος τῷ κριτῇ καὶ κριτὴς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ καὶ εἰς φυλακὴν βληθήσῃ·

26. I tell you the truth, you will not get out of there at all until you have paid the very last penny.
ἀμὴν
λέγω σοι, οὐ μὴ ἐξέλθῃς ἐκεῖθεν, ἕως ἂν ἀποδῷς τὸν ἔσχατον κοδράντην.

27. You have heard that it was said:
“You must not commit adultery.”

Ἠκούσατε
ὅτι ἐρρέθη· οὐ μοιχεύσεις.

28. I tell you however, that whoever has looked at a woman to lust after her, has already committed adultery with her in his heart.
ἐγὼ
δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς βλέπων γυναῖκα πρὸς τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι αὐτὴν ἤδη ἐμοίχευσεν αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ.

29. If your right eye causes you to sin, pluck it out, and throw it away. For it is more profitable for you that one of your body parts should be lost, than that your whole body should be thrown into hell.
εἰ
δὲ ὀφθαλμός σου δεξιὸς σκανδαλίζει σε ἔξελε αὐτὸν καὶ βάλε ἀπὸ σοῦ· συμφέρει γάρ σοι ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μελῶν σου καὶ μὴ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα σου βληθῇ εἰς γέενναν.
eye” – “ophthalmos” – ὀφθαλμός This is the root of the English word “Opthalmic”
“causes you to sin
” – literally “offends you”, or “causes you to stumble” – skandalizei – σκανδαλίζει – the root of the English “Scandal”

30. If your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off, and throw it away. For it is more profitable for you that one of your body parts should be lost, than that your whole body should be thrown into hell.
καὶ
εἰ δεξιά σου χεὶρ σκανδαλίζει σε, ἔκκοψον αὐτὴν καὶ βάλε ἁπὸ σοῦ· συμφέρει γάρ σοι ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μελῶν σου καὶ μὴ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα σου εἰς γέενναν ἀπέλθῃ.
body” – soma – σῶμα Like psychosomatic

31. It has been said:
“If anyone divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.”

Ἐρρέθη
δέ· ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, δότω αὐτῇ ἀποστάσιον.

32. However I tell you this, that if anyone divorces his wife for any reason apart from sexual immorality, he causes her to commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.
ἐγὼ
δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας ποιεῖ αὐτὴν μοιχευθῆναι καὶ ὃς ἐὰν ἀπολελυμένην γαμήσῃ μοιχᾶται.
wife
: gunaika – like “gynaecology” As in French, “Femme” means both “woman” and “wife”, so in Greek “gune” means both “woman” and “wife”; and “aner” means both “man” and “husband”

33. Again, you have heard that it was said by people who lived long ago:
“You must not swear falsely, but you must perform all your oaths to the Lord
.”
Πάλιν
ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις οὐκ ἐπιορκήσεις, ἀποδώσεις δὲ τῷ κυρίῳ τοὺς ὅρκους σου.
people who lived long ago” – “archaiois” – ἀρχαίοις, like “archaic” in modern English

34. However I tell you you this: do not swear at all, neither by Heaven, for it is God’s throne,
ἐγὼ
δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ὀμόσαι ὅλως· μήτε ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ὅτι θρόνος ἐστιν τοῦ θεοῦ,
throne
– Greek “thronos” –θρόνος

35. Nor by the earth, for it is His footstool, nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.
μήτε
ἐν τῇ γῇ ὅτι ὑποπόδιον ἐστιν τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ, μήτε εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ὅτι πόλις ἐστιν τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως,

36. Do not swear by your head either, because you cannot make a single hair white or black.
μήτε
ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ σου ὀμόσῃς, ὅτι οὐ δύνασαι μίαν τρίχα λευκὴν ποιῆσαι μέλαιναν.
hair” – tricha – τρίχα – like the English “Trichology”

37. Instead, speak like this: “Yes” to mean “yes”, and “no” to mean “no”. For whatever is more than these comes from the evil one.
ἔστω
δὲ λόγος ὑμῶν ναὶ ναί, οὐ οὐ· τὸ δὲ περισσὸν τούτων ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ ἐστιν.

38. You have heard that is has been said:
“An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.”

Ἠκούσατε
ὅτι ἐρρέθη· ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος.

39. However I tell you, that you should not resist evil, but if anyone strikes you on your right cheek, turn the other cheek to him also.
ἐγὼ
δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ἀντιστῆναι τῷ πονηρῷ· ἀλλ’ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα σου, στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην·

40. If anyone wants to sue you in court, and to take away your shirt, let him have your coat also.
καὶ
τῷ θέλοντι σοι κριθῆναι καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα σου λαβεῖν, ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον·

41. If anyone forces you to accompany him one mile, go the second mile with him also.
καὶ
ὅστις σε ἀγγαρεύσει μίλιον ἓν, ὕπαγε μετ’ αὐτοῦ δύο.
mile” – “milion” – μίλιον
second” – duo – δύο
It is from this passage that we get the English proverb – “to go the extra mile”

42. Give to any man who asks you, and do not turn away from any man that wants to borrow from you.
τῷ αἰτοῦντι σε δός καὶ τὸν θέλοντα ἀπὸ σοῦ δανίσασθαι μὴ ἀποστραφῆς.

43. You have heard that it has been said:
“You must love your neighbour and hate your enemy.”

Ἠκούσατε
ὅτι ἐρρέθη. ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου καὶ μισήσεις τὸν ἐχθρόν σου.

44. However I tell you:
“Love your enemies and pray for the people who persecute you
.
ἐγὼ
δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς,

45. In this way you will be the children of your Father who is in Heaven, for He makes the sun rise on evil people and good people, and he sends rain on just people and unjust people.
ὅπως
γένησθε υἱοὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς, ὅτι τὸν ἥλιον αὐτοῦ ἀνατέλλει ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς καὶ βρέχει ἐπὶ δικαίους καὶ ἀδίκους.

46. For if you only love people who love you, what reward will you get for this? After all, do tax-collectors not also do this?
ἐὰν
γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν;

47. And if you only greet and acknowledge your own brothers, what are you doing more than anyone else? Do the Gentiles not also do this?
καὶ
ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν;
Gentiles” in Greek, ethnikoi – ἐθνικοὶ, like the English “Ethnic”

48. Therefore, you must be perfect, even as your Father who is in Heaven is perfect.
ἔσεσθε
οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι ὡς πατὴρ ὑμῶν οὐράνιος τέλειός ἐστιν.

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