Matthew 4 – Commentary

Matthew 4 – Commentary

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Matthew 4: Kata Matthaion 4: ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 4

Last updated 20th March  2012

1. Then Jesus was led up by the Holy Spirit into a desert place to be tested by the devil.
Τότε Ἰησοῦς ἀνήχθη εἰς τὴν ἔρημον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος πειρασθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου.“By the Holy Spirit” – In Greek, simply “by the Spirit” – pneumatos – πνεύματος

2. He fasted for forty days and forty nights. After this, He was hungry.
καὶ νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσεράκοντα ὕστερον ἐπείνασεν.

3. Then the tempter came to Him and said:
“If You are the Son of God, command these stones to become bread.

προσελθὼν πειράζων εἶπεν αὐτῷ εἰ υἱος εἷ τοῦ θεοῦ εἶπὲ ἵνα οἱ λίθοι οὗτοι ἄρτοι γένωνται·
command” – literally “say that these stones should become bread”: “eipe hina hoi lithoi houtoi artoi genontai” – εἶπὲ ἵνα οἱ λίθοι οὗτοι ἄρτοι γένωνται·
stones” – lithoi – λίθοι – It is from this word that we get the English word “lithography”

4. Jesus however answered him in reply:
“It is written in the Scriptures that:
People should not exist by eating bread alone, but also by consuming every word that proceeds from God’s mouth.””

δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν γέγραπται· οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ἄνθρωπος ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος θεοῦ.
people” – literally “man, a human being” – anthropos – ἄνθρωπος – it is from this word that we get the English words “Anthropology”, and “philanthropic” – someone who loves humanity
alone” – Greek – mono – μόνῳ It is from a variant of this word that we get the English prefix “mono”, meaning “one” as in monochrome, monologue, monosyllabic etc

5. Then the devil took Him up into the holy city, and set Him on a tower of the Temple.
παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν διὰβολος εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἔστησεν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ
the devil” – ho diabolos – διὰβολος Compare the English word “diabolical”
city” – polin – πόλιν It is from this word that we get the English word “politics”, and all its variants – political etc

6. The devil said to Him:
“If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down from here, for it is written in the Scriptures that:
“He shall make His angels look after You, and they shall rescue You in their hands, so that You will not even bruise Your foot against any stone.”

λέγει αὐτῷ εἰ υἱὸς εἰ τοῦ θεοῦ βάλε σεαυτὸν κάτω· γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσιν σε, μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου.
throw” – in Greek “bale” – βάλε from “ballo”, I throw. This is the root of the English word “ballistics”
It is written in the Scriptures” – in Greek, simply “it is written” – gegraptai – γέγραπτα
foot” – poda – πόδα – compare the English word “podiatry”

7. Jesus said to him:
“It is also written in the Scriptures that
“You must not deliberately take the Lord your God for granted.””

αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν γέγραπται οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σου.

8. After this, the devil again took Him up onto an extremely high mountain, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glories of each one.
παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν διάβολος εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν λίαν καὶ δείκνυσιν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τοῦ κόσμου καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν
world” – cosmou – κόσμου – from “cosmos”

9. And he said to Him:
“I will give You all these things, if You will fall to Your knees and worship me.

εἶπεν αὐτῷ ταῦτα σοι πάντα δώσω ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι.

10. Then Jesus said to him:
“Get away from Me, Satan, for it is written in the Scriptures:
“You must worship the Lord your God, and serve Him and Him alone.”

λέγει αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς· ὕπαγε σατανᾶ γέγραπται γάρ· κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις.

11. Then the devil left Him, and angels came and looked after Him.
ἀφίησιν αὐτὸν διάβολος, καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄγγελοι προσῆλθον καὶ διηκόνουν αὐτῷ.
looked after Him” – literally, “ministered to Him” – diekonoun – διηκόνουν. This is the verb form of the same word from which we get the English “Deacon”, or Minister. (Servant)

12. Now when Jesus heard that John had been thrown into prison, He left to go into Galilee.
δὲ ὅτι Ἰωάννης παρεδόθη ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν.

13. He left Nazareth, and He went and lived in Capernaum, which is on the sea coast, on the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali.
καταλιπὼν τὴν Ναζαρὰ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ τὴν παραθαλασσίαν ἐν ὀρίοις Ζαβουλὼν καὶ Νεφθαλίμ·

14. He did this so that the prophecy of the Prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled, which says:
πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος·

15. “The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, along the sea, beyond the Jordan, in Galilee of the Gentiles;
Ζαβουλὼν καὶ γῆ Νεφθαλίμ, ὁδὸν θαλάσσης, πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου Γαλιλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν,

16. The people who sat in darkness have seen a great light, and a light has dawned for the people who sat in the region and the shadow of death.
λαὸς καθήμενος ἐν σκοτίᾳ φῶς εἶδεν μέγα, καὶ τοῖς καθημένοις ἐν χώρᾳ καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου φῶς ἀνέτειλεν αὐτοῖς.
great” – in Greek, “mega” – μέγα
light” – in Greek “phos” – φῶς Compare “photo” in English, and “phosphorus” – literally,”bearer of light”

17. From that time Jesus began to preach, saying:
“Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is almost here.

τότε ἤρξατο Ἰησοῦς κηρύσσειν καὶ λέγειν μετανοεῖτε· ἤγγικεν γὰρ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

18. Jesus, while He was walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brothers: Simon, who was also called Peter, and his brother Andrew. They were throwing a net into the sea, for they were fishermen.
δε͂ παρᾶ τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας εἶδεν δύο ἀδελφούς, Σίμωνα τὸν λεγόμενον Πέτρον καὶ Ἀνδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ βάλλοντας ἀμφίβληστρον εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν ἦσαν γὰρ ἁλιεῖς.
brothers” – adelphous – ἀδελφούς It is from this that we get the word “Philadelphia” – brotherly (or sisterly) love (Sister – adelphe)

19. Jesus said to them:
“Follow Me, and I will teach you to catch people, instead of fish.

λέγει αὐτοῖς δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καὶ ποιήσω ὑμᾶς ἁλιεῖς ἀνθρώπων.

20. They immediately left their nets, and followed Him.
δὲ εὐθέως ἀφέντες τὰ δίκτυα ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ.

21. And moving on from there, He saw two other brothers: James the son of Zebedee and John his brother, in a boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets, and He called them,
προβὰς ἐκεῖθεν εἶδεν ἄλλους δύο ἀδελφούϚ, Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ μετὰ Ζεβεδαίου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῶν καταρτίζοντας τὰ δίκτυα αὐτῶν καὶ ἐκάλεσεν αὐτούς.
with” – meta – μετὰ

22. Then they immediately left the boat and their father, and they followed Him.
δὲ εὐθέως ἀφέντες τὸ πλοῖον καὶ τὸν πατέρα αὐτῶν ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ.

23. Then Jesus went round and about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the Good News of the Kingdom, and healing all kinds of sicknesses and all kinds of diseases among the people.
περιῆγεν ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ διδάσκων ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν καὶ κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας καὶ θεραπεύων πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν ἐν τῷ λαῷ.
all” – holei – ὅλῃ – Compare the English word “whole”
healing” – therapeuon – θεραπεύων This is the origin of the English word “therapy”

24. News about Him spread throughout all of Syria, and people brought to Him all sick people who were sick with various types of diseases and painful conditions, and people who were possessed by evil spirits, and people with psychiatric problems, and people who were paralysed, and He healed them.
ἀπῆλθεν ἀκοὴ αὐτοῦ εἰς ὅλην τὴν Συρίαν καὶ προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις καὶ βασάνοις συνεχομένους καὶ δαιμονιζομένους καὶ σεληνιαζομένους καὶ παραλυτικούς, καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτούς.
people with psychiatric problems” – in Greek, literally “moon-struck” – seleniazomenous. σεληνιαζομένους selene – moon. This is also exactly what “lunatic” from a Latin root means – “Luna” – Latin for moon

25. Great crowds of people followed Him, from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judea, and from beyond the Jordan.
ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ ὄχλοι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ Δεκαπόλεως καὶ Ἱ̓Ἱεροσολύμων καὶ Ἰουδαίας καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου.
Great” – in Greek polloi – πολλοὶ This is related to poly, which is the root of the English prefix meaning “many” as in “polygamy”, “polygon” etc

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