Matthew 10 – Commentary

Matthew 10 Commentary

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Matthew 10 : Kata Matthaion 10 : ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 10

Last updated 11th April 2012

1. Then He called His twelve disciples to Him, and He gave them power to cast out evil spirits and to heal all kinds of sicknesses and all kinds of diseases.
Καὶ
προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς δώδεκα μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων ὥστε ἐκβάλλειν αὐτὰ καὶ θεραπεύειν πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν.

2. The names of the twelve apostles are these: The first is Simon, also called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;
Τῶν
δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματα ἐστιν ταῦτα· πρῶτος Σίμων λεγόμενος Πέτρος καὶ Ἀνδρέας ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ Ἰάκωβος τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάννης ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ,
Simon
– Simon – Σίμων
Peter-Petros – Πέτρος
Andrew – Andreas – Ἀνδρέας
James – Iakobos – Ἰάκωβος
John – Ioannes – Ἰωάννης

3. Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas, and Matthew the tax-collector; James the son of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus;
Φίλιππος
καὶ Βαρθολομαῖος, Θωμᾶς καὶ Μαθθαῖος τελώνης, Ἰάκωβος τοῦ Ἀλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖος,
Philip
– Philippos – Φίλιππος – meaning “lover of horses” – “phil” – lover, “hippos” – “horse”
Bartholomew – Bartholomaios – Βαρθολομαῖος
Thomas – Thomas – Θωμᾶς
Matthew – Matthaios – Μαθθαῖος
Thaddaeus – Thaddaios – Θαδδαῖος Thaddaeus with the “eus” ending represents the romanised version of the name, as oppposed to the “ios” ending found in the Greek

4. Simon from Canaan and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Him.
Σίμων
Καναναῖος καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰσκαριώτης καὶ παραδοὺς αὐτόν.
Simon – Simon – Σίμων
Judas – Ioudas – Ἰούδας

5. Jesus sent these twelve men out, and commanded them saying:
“Do not go into the region of the Gentiles, and do not enter any Samaritan city
.
Τούτους
τοὺς δώδεκα ἀπέστειλεν Ἰησοῦς παραγγείλας αὐτοῖς λέγων· εἰς ὁδὸν ἐθνῶν μὴ ἀπέλθητε καὶ εἰς πόλιν Σαμαριτῶν μὴ εἰσέλθητε·

6. But go rather to the lost sheep of the House of Israel.
πορεύεσθε
δὲ μᾶλλον πρὸς τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἀπολωλότα οἴκου Ἰσραήλ.

7. And as you go, preach, saying:
“The Kingdom of Heaven is about to arrive!

πορευόμενοι
δὲ κηρύσσετε λέγοντες ὅτι ἤγγικεν βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

8. Heal the sick, heal lepers, raise the dead, cast out demons; you have received freely, so give freely.
ἀσθενοῦντας
θεραπεύετε, νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε, λεπροὺς καθαρίζετε, δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλετε· δωρεὰν ἐλάβετε, δωρεὰν δότε.

9. Do not provide for yourselves gold, nor silver, nor brass coins in your money-pouches;
Μὴ
κτήσησθε χρυσὸν μηδὲ ἄργυρον μηδὲ χαλκὸν εἰς τὰς ζώνας ὑμῶν,
money-pouches – zonas –ζώνας technically meaning “belt”, this is the origin of the word “Zone” in English (via Latin)

10. Nor a bag for your journey nor two tunics, nor sandals, and not even staffs, for the worker is worthy of his food.
μὴ
πήραν ἐις ὁδὸν μηδὲ δύο χιτῶνας μηδὲ ὑποδήματα μηδὲ ῥάβδον· ἄξιος γὰρ ἐργάτης τῆς τροφῆς αὐτοῦ.

11. And whenever you enter a city or town, enquire who in it is worthy, and stay with them until you leave that place.
εἰς
ἣν δ’ ἂν πόλιν κώμην εἰσέλθητε ἐξετάσατε τίς ἐν αὐτῇ ἄξιος ἐστιν· κακεῖ μείνατε ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε.

12. And when you come to a house, greet it.
εἰσερχόμενοι
δὲ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ἀσπάσασθε αὐτήν·

13. And if the house is worthy, let your blessings rest upon it; but if it is not worthy, let your blessings return to you.
καὶ
ἐὰν μὲν οἰκία ἀξία, ἐλθάτω εἰρήνη ὑμῶν ἐπ’ αὐτήν, ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀξία, εἰρήνη ὑμῶν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐπιστραφήτω.
blessings
– literally “peace” – eirene – εἰρήνη It is from this word that we get the female name “Irene”

14. And if anyone will not receive you or listen to your words, when you leave that house or city, shake the dust of that place off your feet.
καὶ
ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται ὑμᾶς μηδὲ ἀκούσῃ τοὺς λόγους ὑμῶν, ἐξερχόμενοι ἔξω τῆς οἰκίας τῆς πόλεως ἐκείνης ἐκτινάξατε τὸν κονιορτὸν τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν.

15. I tell you the truth, the judgement day will be more bearable for Sodom and Gomorrah than for that city.
ἀμὴν
λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται γῇ Σοδόμων καὶ Γομόρρων ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ.

16. Look, I am sending you out as sheep among wolves. Therefore be as wise as snakes, and as harmless as doves.
Ἰδοὺ
ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς πρόβατα ἐν μέσῳ λύκων· γίνεσθε οὖν φρόνιμοι ὡς οἱ ὄφεις καὶ ἀκέραιοι ὡς αἱ περιστεραί.

17. But be careful about other people, for they will deliver you up to the councils, and they will whip you in their synagogues.
Προσέχετε
δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων· παραδώσουσιν γὰρ ὑμᾶς εἰς συνέδρια καὶ ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν μαστιγώσουσιν ὑμᾶς·

18. And you will be brought in front of governors and kings because of Me. This will be a witness against them and the Gentiles.
καὶ
ἐπὶ ἡγεμόνας δὲ καὶ βασιλεῖς ἀχθήσεσθε ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς καὶ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν.

19. But when they deliver you up, do not be anxious about how you should converse or what you should say, for what you should say will be given to you at that exact time.
ὅταν
δὲ παραδῶσιν ὑμᾶς μὴ μεριμνήσητε πῶς τί λαλήσητε· δοθήσεται γὰρ ὑμῖν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρα τί λαλήσητε·

20. For you are not the one speaking, but it is rather the Spirit of your Father who is speaking through you.
οὐ
γὰρ ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ λαλοῦντες ἀλλὰ τὸ πνεῦμα τοὺ πατρὸς ὑμῶν τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ὑμῖν.

21. And one brother will deliver up his brother to death, and the father will deliver his child, and the children shall rise up against the parents and cause them to be put to death.
Παραδώσει
δὲ ἀδελφὸς ἀδελφὸν εἰς θάνατον καὶ πατὴρ τέκνον καὶ ἐπαναστήσονται τέκνα ἐπὶ γονεῖς καὶ θανατώσουσιν αὐτούς.

22. And you shall be hated by all people because of My name, but the person who endures to the end shall be saved.
καὶ
ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι ὑπὸ πάντων διὰ τὸ ὄνομα μου· δὲ ὑπομείνας εἰς τέλος οὗτος σωθήσεται.

23. Whenever they persecute you in this city, flee to the next one. For I tell you the truth, you will not finish going through all the cities of Israel before the Son of Man will come.
Ὅταν
δὲ διώκωσιν ὑμᾶς ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτη φεύγετε εἰς τὴν ἑτέραν· ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ τελέσητε τὰς πόλεις τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
persecute – literally, chase – diokosin – διώκωσιν
the next one” – literally “the other one” – ten heteran – τὴν ἑτέραν

24. A disciple is not above his teacher nor is a slave above his master.
Ὀυκ
ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον οὐδὲ δοῦλος ὑπὲρ τὸν κύριον αὐτοῦ.

25. It is enough for the disciple that he should become like his teacher, and for the slave that he should become like his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more will they call those of his household.
ἀρκετὸν
τῷ μαθητῇ ἵνα γένηται ὡς διδάσκαλος αὐτοῦ καὶ δοῦλος ὡς κύριος αὐτοῦ. εἰ τὸν οἰκοδεσπότην βεελζεβοὺλ ἐπεκάλεσαν, πόσῳ μᾶλλον τοὺς οἰκιακοὺς αὐτοῦ.

26. Therefore do not be afraid of them. For there is nothing covered which shall not be revealed, and secret which shall not be be made known.
Μὴ
οὒν φοβηθῆτε αὐτοὺς· οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐστιν κεκαλυμμένον οὐκ ἀποκαλυφθήσεται καὶ κρυπτὸν οὐ γνωσθήσεται.
secret -literally “hidden” – krupton – κρυπτὸν Like “Crypt” and “Cryptic”

27. Whatever I tell you in darkness, speak this out in the light and declare on the housetops the things you hear in your ears.
λέγω ὑμῖν ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ εἴπατε ἐν τῷ φωτί, καὶ εἰς τὸ οὖς ἀκούετε κηρύξατε ἐπὶ τῶν δωμάτων.

28. And do not fear those people who kill the body, but do not have power to kill the spirit. Rather fear Him who has the power to destroy both spirit and body in hell.
καὶ
μὴ φοβεῖσθε ἀπὸ τῶν ἀποκτεινόντων τὸ σῶμα, τὴν δὲ ψυχὴν μὴ δυνάμενων ἀποκτεῖναι· φοβεῖσθε δὲ μᾶλλον τὸν δυνάμενον καὶ ψυχὴν καὶ σῶμα ἀπολέσαι ἐν γεέννῃ.

29. Are not two sparrows sold for a copper coin? And yet not one of these falls to the ground without your Father knowing about it.
οὐχὶ
δύο στρουθία ἀσσαρίου πωλεῖται; καὶ ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν οὐ πεσεῖται ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἄνευ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν.
without your Father knowing about it” – literally “without your Father” – aneu tou patros humon – ἄνευ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν

30. But the hairs of your head are all numbered.
ὑμῶν
δὲ καὶ αἱ τρίχες τῆς κεφαλῆς πᾶσαι ἠριθμημέναι εἰσιν.
numbered – erithmemenai – ἠριθμημέναι – like “Arithmetic”

31. Therefore do not be afraid. You are worth more than many sparrows.
μὴ
οὖν φοβεῖσθε· πολλων στρουθίων διαφέρετε ὑμεῖς.

32. Whoever therefore acknowledges Me before men, I will acknowledge him also before My Father who is in Heaven.
Πᾶς
οὖν ὅστις ὁμολογήσει ἐν ἐμοὶ ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ὁμολογήσω καγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·

33. Whoever, however, disowns Me before men, I too will disown him before My Father who is in Heaven.
ὅστις
δὲ ἀρνήσηται με ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἀρνήσομαι καγὼ αὐτὸν ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.

34. Do not think that I have come to bring peace on the earth. I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.
Μὴ
νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν· οὐκ ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἀλλὰ μάχαιραν.

35. For I have come to set “a man against his father” and “a daughter against her mother” and “a bride against her mother-in-law”,
ἦλθον
γὰρ διχάσαι
ἄνθρωπον
κατὰ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ
καὶ
θυγατέρα κατὰ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτῆς
καὶ
νύμφην κατὰ τῆς πενθερᾶς αὐτῆς,

36. And “a person’s enemies will be those of their own household”.
καὶ
ἐχθροὶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου
οἱ οἰκιακοὶ αὐτοῦ.

37. Whoever loves their father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me, and whoever loves their son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me.
φιλῶν πατέρα μητέρα ὑπὲρ ἑμὲ οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος καὶ φιλῶν υἱὸν θυγατέρα ὑπὲρ ἐμὲ οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος·

38. And whoever does not take up their cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me.
καὶ
ὃς οὐ λαμβάνει τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀκολουθεῖ ὀπίσω μου, οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος.
cross – stauron – σταυρὸν

39. Whoever finds their life will lose it, and whoever loses their life because of Me will find it.
εὑρὼν τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἀπολέσει αὐτήν, καὶ ἀπολέσας τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ εὑρήσει αὐτήν.

40. Whoever receives you receives Me, and whoever receives Me receives Him who sent Me.
δεχόμενος ὑμᾶς ἐμὲ δέχεται καὶ ἐμὲ δεχόμενος δέχεται τὸν ἀποστείλαντα με.

41. Whoever receives a prophet in the name of a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward. And whoever receives a righteous person in the name of a righteous person will receive a righteous person’s reward.
δεχόμενος προφήτην εἰς ὄνομα προφήτου μισθὸν προφήτου λήμψεται καὶ δεχόμενος δίκαιον εἰς ὄνομα δικαίου μισθὸν δικαίου λήμψεται.

42. And if anyone gives one of the least of these disciples a drink of cold water in the name of a disciple, I tell you the truth, he will not lose his reward.
καὶ
ὃς ἂν ποτίσῃ ἕνα τῶν μικρῶν τούτων ποτήριον ψυχροῦ μόνον εἰς ὄνομα μαθητοῦ, ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσῃ τὸν μισθὸν αὐτοῦ.
of these disciples – this phrase does not occur in the Greek, but is here added for clarity

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