Mark 4 – Commentary

Mark 4 – Commentary

  Mark 4 (19.0 KiB, 192 hits)

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Mark 4 : Kata Markon 4ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 4

Last updated 19th April 2012

1. And again He began to teach along the sea. And a great crowd gathered to Him, so that He entered into a boat and sat on the sea, and the whole crowd was by the sea on the land.
Καὶ πάλιν ἤρξατο διδάσκειν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν· καὶ συνάγεται πρὸς αὐτὸν ὄχλος πλεῖστος, ὥστε αὐτὸν εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα καθῆσθαι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ πᾶς ὄχλος πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν.

2. And He taught them many things in parables and He spoke to them in His teaching:
καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς πολλὰ καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ·
parables – parabolais – παραβολαῖς
teaching – didachei – διδαχῇ – like “didactic”

3. “Listen. Look, a sower went out to sow.
Ἀκούετε. ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν σπείρων σπεῖραι.

4. And it happened as he sowed that some seed fell along the path, and the birds came and ate it up.
καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν μὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, καὶ ἦλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό.
as he sowed – literally, “in the sowing” – en toi speirein- ἐν τῷ σπείρειν
ate it up – literally, completely and thoroughly ate it up – katephagen – κατέφαγεν
some seed – in the Greek, just “some” – ho –

5. And other seed fell on stony ground where it did not have much earth, and immediately it sprang up because it did not have deep earth.
καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες ὅπου οὐκ εἴχεν γῆν πολλήν, καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξανέτειλεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος γῆς·
stony – petrodes – πετρῶδες – like “Peter” (literally meaning “a rock”) and “petrol”, or oil from the rock
deep – bathos – βάθος

6. And when the sun rose it was scorched and because it did not have roots it withered.
καὶ ὅτε ἀνέτειλεν ἥλιος ἐκαυματίσθη καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ῥίζαν ἐξηράνθη.
sun – helios – ἥλιος – like “helix”

7. And other seed fell into the thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked it, and it did not grow any fruits.
καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας, καὶ ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι καὶ συνέπνιξαν αὐτό, καὶ καρπὸν οὐκ ἔδωκεν.
did not grow – literally “did not give” – ouk edoken –οὐκ ἔδωκεν

8. And other seed fell onto the good soil and grew up and increased and grew fruits; some produced thirty fruits and some sixty fruits and some a hundred fruits.”
καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν καλὴν καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενα καὶ ἔφερεν ἓν τριάκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑκατόν.
fruits – fruits-fruits – the Greek omits the word for “fruits”, but literally reads: some thirty, some sixty, some hundred”

9. And He said:
“Let anyone who has ears listen to this
!”
καὶ ἔλεγεν· ὃς ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω.

10. And when He was by Himself those who were around Him with the twelve asked Him about the parables.
Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς.

11. And He said to them:
“To you the mystery of the Kingdom of God has been given. To those who are outside all things are in parables

καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ· ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται,
mystery – musterion – μυστήριον

12. so that “they might look and look and not see, and that they may hear and hear and not understand in case they turn and are forgiven.“”
ἵνα
βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν,
καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν,
μήποτε
ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς.

13. And He said to them:
“Do you not understand this parable? How then will you understand all the parables
?!
Καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· οὐκ οἴδατε τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην, καὶ πῶς πάσας τὰς παραβολὰς γνώσεσθε.
understand 1 – literally “know, perceive” – oidate – οἴδατε – related to the verb “to see”
understand 2 – literally “get to know, understand” (different verb from the one used in understand 1) – gnosesthe – γνώσεσθε

14. The sower sows the word.
σπείρων τὸν λόγον σπείρει.

15. These are those along the way. When the word is sown and they hear it, immediately Satan comes and takes away the word sown in them.
οὗτοι δὲ εἰσιν οἱ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν· ὅπου σπείρεται λόγος καὶ ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν, εὐθὺς ἔρχεται σατανᾶς καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον τὸν ἐσπαρμένον εἰς αὐτούς.

16. And these are those sown on the stony ground: these are those who hear the word and immediately receive it joyfully.
καὶ οὗτοι εἰσιν οἱ ἐπὶ τὰ πετρώδη σπειρόμενοι, οἳ ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς μετὰ χαρᾶς λαμβάνουσιν αὐτόν,
literally “when they hear the word, they immediately…”

17. However they do not have roots in themselves but are temporary. Then when affliction or persecution occurs because of the word they are immediately caused to stumble.
καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν ῥίζαν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἀλλὰ πρόσκαιροι εἰσιν, εἶτα γενομένης θλίψεως διωγμοῦ διὰ τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς σκανδαλίζονται.
roots – the same Greek word used in the verse in I Timothy 6.10 – “The love of money is the root of all evil” – rhizan – ῥίζαν – in the Greek this word is singular

18. And others are those who are sown among the thorns. These are those who hear the word,
καὶ ἄλλοι εἰσὶν οἱ εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας σπειρόμενοι· οὗτοι εἰσιν οἱ τὸν λόγον ἀκούσαντες,

19. but the cares of this age and the deceitfulness of riches and the desires for other things enter in and choke the word and it does not bear any fruit.
καὶ αἱ μέριμναι τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἀπάτη τοῦ πλούτου καὶ αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπιθυμίαι εἰσπορευόμεναι συμπνίγουσιν τὸν λόγον καὶ ἄκαρπος γίνεται.

20. And these are those sown on the good soil, who hear the word and receive it and bear fruit: some thirty fruits and some sixty fruits and some a hundred fruits.”
καὶ ἐκεῖνοι εἰσιν οἱ ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν τὴν καλὴν σπαρέντες, οἵτινες ἀκούουσιν τὸν λόγον καὶ παραδέχονται καὶ καρποφοροῦσιν ἓν τριάκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑκατόν.
fruits – fruits – fruits – again, the Greek omits the word for “fruits” in these places

21. Then He said to them:
“Is a lamp brought to be put under a basket or under the bed? Is it not brought to be put on a lamp stand
?
Καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· ὅτι μήτι ἔρχεται λύχνος ἵνα ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον τεθῇ ὑπὸ τὴν κλίνην; οὐχ ἵνα ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν τεθῇ;

22. For there is nothing hidden which will not be revealed, and there is nothing secret which will not be made open.
οὐ γὰρ ἐστιν κρυπτὸν ἐὰν μὴ ἵνα φανερωθῇ, οὐδὲ ἐγένετο ἀπόκρυφον ἀλλ’ ἵνα ἔλθη εἰς φανερόν.
For there is nothing hidden – in Greek, “for there is not hidden except so that it will be revealed”, and “there is not made secret but so that it should come into the open”

23. Let anyone who has ears to hear, hear this.”
εἴ τις ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω.

24. And He said to them:
Pay attention to what you hear. For with the measure that you measure it will be measured to you and more will be added to you
.
Καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· βλέπετε τί ἀκούετε. ἐν μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε μετρηθήσεται ὑμῖν καὶ προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν.
Pay attention to what you hear” – in the Greek, this is a pun, or a word joke – literally “Look at what you hear”; as we might say “Watch what you hear” – blepete ti akouete – βλέπετε τί ἀκούετε.
with the measure that you measure it will be measured” – in the Greek this is another pun – using three words with the same root “metro” – meaning “to measure” right next to one another –
metroi metreite metrethesetai – μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε μετρηθήσεται

25. For whoever has, to him more will be given. And whoever does not have, even what he does have will be taken away from him.”
ὃς γὰρ ἔχει, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ· καὶ ὃς οὐκ ἔχει, καὶ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ.

26. And He said:
“The Kingdom of God is like this: like when a man scatters seed on the ground

Καὶ ἔλεγεν· οὕτως ἐστιν βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς ἄνθρωπος βάλῃ τὸν σπόρον ἐπὶ τὴς γῆς
scatters – throws, casts – balei – βάλῃ

27. and he sleeps and he gets up night and day, and the seed sprouts and grows in a way he does not know.
καὶ καθεύδῃ καὶ ἐγείρηται νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν, καὶ σπόρος βλαστᾷ καὶ μηκύνηται ὡς οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτός.

28. The earth bears fruit by itself, first the blade then the ear then the full grain in the ear.
αὐτομάτη γῆ καρποφορεῖ, πρῶτον χόρτον εἶτα στάχυν εἶτα πλήρης σῖτον ἐν τῷ στάχϋι.
by itself -automate – αὐτομάτη – like “automatic, automatically”

29. When it produces grain, immediately he puts in the sickle, because the harvest has come.”
ὅταν δὲ παραδοῖ καρπός, εὐθὺς ἀποστέλλει τὸ δρέπανον, ὅτι παρέστηκεν θερισμός.
grain – literally “fruit” – karpos – καρπός

30. And He said:
“To what shall I liken the Kingdom of God or with what parable should I present it
?
Καὶ ἔλεγεν· πῶς ὁμοιώσωμεν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν τίνι αὐτὴν παραβολῇ θῶμεν;

31. It is like a grain of mustard, which, when it is sown on the earth, it is smaller than all the seeds on the earth.
ὡς κόκκῳ σινάπεως, ὃς ὅταν σπαρῇ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, μικρότερον ὂν πάντων τῶν σπερμάτων τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς,

32. And when it is sown, it grows and becomes greater than all the herbs and grows great branches, so that the birds of heaven can shelter under its shade.”
καὶ ὅταν σπαρῇ, ἀναβαίνει καὶ γίνεται μεῖζον πάντων τῶν λαχάνων καὶ ποιεῖ κλάδους μεγάλους, ὥστε δύνασθαι ὑπὸ τὴν σκιὰν αὐτοῦ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνοῦν.
of heaven – tou ouranou – τοῦ οὐρανοῦ Heaven = Ouranus – like Uranus

33. And with many such parables as these He spoke the word to them as they were able to hear it.
Καὶ τοιαύταις παραβολαῖς πολλαῖς ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον καθὼς ἠδύναντο ἀκούειν·
the word – ton logon – τὸν λόγον

34. He did not speak to them without a parable. But when they were alone He explained everything to His disciples.
χωρὶς δὲ παραβολῆς οὐκ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς, κατ’ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς ἰδίοις μαθηταῖς ἐπέλυεν πάντα.

35. And He said to them that day when it was evening:
“Let us go over to the other side
.”
Καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὀψίας γενομένης· διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν.

36. And sending away the crowd they took Him along as He was in the boat, and other boats were with them.
καὶ ἀφέντες τὸν ὄχλον παραλαμβάνουσιν αὐτὸν ὡς ἦν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ, καὶ ἄλλα πλοῖα ἦν μετ’ αὐτοῦ.

37. And there arose a great gale of wind and the waves were thrown into the boat, so that the boat was already being filled.
καὶ γίνεται λαῖλαψ μεγάλη ἀνέμου καὶ τὰ κύματα ἐπέβαλλεν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, ὥστε ἤδη γεμίζεσθαι τὸ πλοῖον.
the boat – to ploion – τὸ πλοῖον – this word is related, via Proto-Indo-European (the root of Latin and Greek and most European languages, and Sanskrit) to the word “to float

38. And He was in the prow sleeping on the cushion. And they woke Him and said to Him: “Master, does it not concern You that we are being destroyed?!”
καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ἐν τῇ πρύμνῃ ἐπὶ τὸ προσκεφάλαιον καθεύδων. καὶ ἐγείρουσιν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ· διδάσκαλε, οὐ μέλει σοι ὅτι ἀπολλύμεθα;

39. And He arose and rebuked the wind and spoke to the sea:
“Be quiet, be still!”
And the wind dropped and there was a great calm
.
καὶ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησεν τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θαλάσσῃ· σιώπα, πεφίμωσο. καὶ ἐκόπασεν ἄνεμος καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη μεγάλη.

40. And He said to them:
“Why are you so fearful? How is it that you have no faith
?!”
καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· τί δειλοί ἐστε; οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν;
How is it that you have no faith – in the Greek, literally “And how do you not have faith?” -oupo echete pistin? – οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν;

41. And they were greatly afraid and said to one another:
“Who is this that even the wind and the sea obey Him
?!”
καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους· τίς ἄρα οὗτος ἐστιν ὅτι καῖ ἄνεμος καὶ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ;
they were greatly afraid – in the Greek, literally “they were afraid (with) a great fear – (Greek word use does not need the word “with” here, as English does) – “ephobethesan phobon megan” – ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν phobon – related to “phobia”, meaning in Greek fear (or hate)
sea – thalassa –θάλασσα – like “thalassaemia”, a medical condition chiefly originating from the Mediterranean region

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